The Agricultural Innovation

The Agricultural Innovation

How might we enable small-scale farmers to increase agricultural profitability and on-farm employment through integrating appropriate innovations with existing practices?

Although agriculture is a dominant sector of the Ethiopian economy, providing over 50% of the country’s GDP and 80% of its employment, it is still largely dominated by subsistence crop and livestock farming. With rapid population growth causing severe land shortages and natural resource degradation, the time is right to focus on innovative solutions to increase agricultural productivity and profitability.

This year’s Social Innovation Challenge is centered around agriculture in the community of the Enemay Woreda (District), East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia.


How It Works

Jan 22, 2020

World Vision issues
a challenge to solve -
and innovators come
up with ideas.

Jun 20, 2020

Innovators submit
their business models.

Summer 2020

Five teams are shortlisted and work together with a partner community to iterate their idea and business models.

Summer 2020

Final business models
are presented to
World Vision and expert industry partners

Fall 2020

Up to two finalists are awarded $12K in funding for implementation and continue on to a 12-month incubation period

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Challenge Brief

  • Background

    Agriculture is the dominant sector of the Ethiopian economy, with 85% of the population living in rural areas. Agriculture provides about 54.8 % of the country’s GDP, 80% of its employment, and 90% of its export earnings (World Bank, 2014). Ethiopia’s economy is largely dominated by subsistence agriculture, which primarily consists of crop and livestock farming.

    The rapid population growth rate of the Amhara region has led to severe land shortages and rapid natural resource degradation. In the Amhara region, 94% of households have insufficient land to meet their food needs. Rural households are compelled to clear and cultivate marginal lands on steep hillsides, and as such, only 1-3% of the Amhara region remains forested. Increasing annual rates of soil loss, caused by steep lands and overgrazed slopes, has led to decreased agricultural productivity.

  • Obstacles

    From World Vision’s research in the region, there are six major issues that perpetuate the need for this challenge statement: traditional cultural practices; challenges accessing agricultural inputs and extension services; weak irrigation practices; land degradation and deforestation; and pest and diseases.

  • Technical Brief

    Download the PDF supplied by World Vision

    Download PDF (ENG) Download PDF (አማርኛ)

  • Criteria

    How are ideas submitted?

    Ideas are submitted online at Individuals may only join one team. Only one entry is allowed per individual, team or organisation. Multiple entries will be disqualified. Fraudulent entries will be declared invalid. Both online and offline applications are accepted and offline application will uploaded to the website by WV.

    All Teams are responsible for ensuring that any material they provide to WV or post on the Online Challenge Platform Site, including but not limited to text, photographs, video and sound, does not violate the copyright, trademark, trade secret or any other personal or proprietary rights of any third party or is used with the permission of the owner(s) of such rights.

    By submitting an Entry, each individual or Team represents and warrants that they have all right, title and/or interest in the materials  submitted and the information it contains is accurate and complete, and that by submitting the Entry the Team is not and will not be violating any contract or third party rights including any patent, copyright, trade secret, proprietary or confidential information, trade-mark, publicity or privacy right. Only applicants will be responsible for any misused information/ inputs that they have used in the Entry.

    By entering this Competition, each member of each Team agrees to release, indemnify, discharge and hold harmless WV, its affiliated organizations, and their respective officers, directors, employees, agents and representatives, from any claim or liability arising from or related to the Competition, and/or participation in the Award.

    WV assumes no responsibility for garbled, lost, late, delayed, destroyed or misdirected mail, voice messages, e-mails or any computer errors or malfunctions.

    WV does not assume any responsibility for incorrect or inaccurate capture of entry information, technical malfunctions, human or technical error, seeding or printing errors, lost, delayed or garbled data or transmissions, omission, interruption, deletion, defect or failures of any telephone or computer line or network, computer equipment, software or any combination thereof.

    In order to become an entrant, an individual, a Team or any organisation must agree to these Rules and fill out the entry form available at the Online Challenge Platform Site A successfully completed and submitted form is an “Entry”. In these Rules, an individual, a Team or any organisation that has submitted an Entry to the Competition is referred to as an “Entrant”.

    When is the deadline for idea submission?

    Submission Deadline: Submission starts on January 22, 2020 and closes on June 1, 2020 (“Preliminary Round Close Date”). After the Preliminary Round Close Date, there will be teams that will be identified as finalists (“Finalists”) per challenge.



    How are ideas judged?

    After the Preliminary Round Close Date, WV and/or a team of industry experts (each a “Judge”, collectively “Judges” or “Judging Panel”) will assess the Entries and select up to 5/five/ Finalists. The Judges shall be experienced entrepreneurs, investors, and academics appointed by WV in its sole discretion.

    The core assessment of the Entries will focus on the innovativeness, feasibility, cost effectiveness, renewable, adaptability, and contextual practicality of the proposed solution.

    All Entries will be evaluated by the Chair and co-Chairs of the Competition by using the common “Executive Summary Judging Criteria”.

    The Chair and co-Chairs will hold a joint session where up to a maximum of 5 Entries will be identified as Finalists. WV will attempt to contact each of the Finalists by email and/or telephone within three weeks after the Preliminary Round Close Date.  In the event that a Finalist cannot be contacted within three weeks after the selections have been made, that Finalist will be disqualified and an alternate Finalist will be selected.

    What is the Prize?

    The Finalists will undergo the Social Innovation Boot Camp to help them refine their ideas before the Final Pitch Round. The Finalists and WV will agree upon a suitable commencement date for the sessions.

    The top two applicants selected as the winners will receive 11,000 USD together. In other words, they will receive 6,500 and 4,500 USDs respectively. However, the share might be based on the best solution selected by Judging Panel. Which means prize share between winners can be decided by judging panels based on the given criteria and points which are mentioned in the briefs to be given high attentions/ considerations.

    Aside from giving out cash prizes, World Vision will also fundraise for the implementation of the winning solutions and provide technical support and advisory services, but fundraising and implementing the solution is not obligatory to WV.

    What is the Final Round Pitch?

    At the Final Round Pitch, Finalists will be provided an opportunity to present their Business Plans, which should explain the practicability of the plan execution and fundability potential.

    Each Finalist will conduct a 10-minute, uninterrupted Business Plan presentation in English or Amharic followed by up to 5 minutes of question and answer. It is not obligatory for all Team members to address the Judges Panel in the presentation.

    The Judges will make their evaluations and give their scores by using a common “Business Plan Judging Criteria”.

    The two winning teams will be decided by the highest score after a joint deliberation of the Judging Panel.

    Travel costs for boot camp will be covered by the Finalists.

    WVDF reserves the right to implement or not implement any ideas submitted to the competition including the winning submission.

    Are the decisions of the Judges final?

    The decisions of the Judging Panel are final and binding. WV and/or the Judging Panel reserves the right to disqualify any Entry that in its judgment violates the Eligibility or these Rules of the Competition.

    Before being confirmed as a Finalist or Winner, each such Finalist or Winner will be required to sign and return, within the time stipulated by WV a full release and Indemnity form stating that the Finalist or Winner has read and understood the Rules, grants all consents required, authorizes WV to broadcast, publish and disseminate Team members’ name, city of residence, photograph, likeness, and voice, in connection with the Competition and their participation in either of the Prizes at no additional compensation to the Finalist or Winner, accepts the Prizes as offered, and releases WV and related parties from any and all liability of any kind arising out of the Winner’s participation in the Competition and the Prizes, including any related travel.

    Proof of identification must be provided upon request.

    If for any reason, in the opinion of WV, in its sole discretion, the Competition is not capable of running as originally planned, or if the administration, security, fairness,

    integrity or the proper conduct of the Competition is corrupted or adversely affected, including by reason of infection by computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures or any other causes beyond its control, WV reserves the right to cancel, terminate, modify, amend, extend or suspend the Competition.

    WV reserves the right to modify the Rules without materially affecting the terms and conditions hereof. WV reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to disqualify any individual it finds to be tampering with the operation of the Competition or to be acting in violation of the Rules or otherwise in a disruptive manner.

    Any attempt to deliberately damage the Competition website or to undermine the legitimate operation of this Competition is a violation of criminal and civil laws and should such an attempt be made, WVDF reserves the right to seek remedies and damages to the fullest extent of the law.

    The Competition is subject to all applicable national, provincial and municipal laws and regulations and any ambiguity shall be subjected to the general concept of the coopetition

  • የማመልከቻ መስፈርቶች

    የፈጠራ/ የመፍትሄ ሃሳቦችን ማስረከብ የሚቻለው እንዴት ነው?

    መፍትሄዎችን ማስረከብ የሚቻለው በቀጥታ የማመለከቻ ዘዴ/Online Application/ ሲሆን፣ የማመልከቻ ሊንኩ/Link/ ደግሞ ነው።

    በቀጥታ የማመለከቻ ዘዴ/ Online Application/ ማመልከት የማይችሉ አመልካቾች ድርጅቱ ያዘጋጀውን ቅፅ/Application Format/ በመውሰድ የውድድር ሃሳባቸውን ከሞሉ ቦሃላ አሽገውና ፈርመው በአካል ለወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጲያ ዋና መስሪያ ቤት ቢሮ ቁጥር 5012 ማስረከብ የሚችሉ ሲሆን ያስረከቡት ሃሳብም በድርጅታችን ሰራተኞች አማናኝነት ምንም ሳይጨመርበትና ሳይቀነስበት ወደ ኦን ላይን/ የሚጫን/ Upload/ የሚደረግ ይሆናል።

    አንድ ግለሰብ በግልም ሆነ በቡድን ማመልከት የሚችለው አንድ ጊዜ ብቻ ነው። ከአንድ ጊዜ በላይ ያመለከቱ አመልካቾች እና የተጭበረበሩ ማመልከቻቸው ያለ ምንም ቅድመ-ሁኔታ ሙሉ በሙሉ ውድቅ የሚደረጉ ይሆናል።

    ተወዳዳሪዎች በማመልከቻቸው የሚያካትቱአቸዋ ማናቸውም ነገሮች ለምሳሌ ፅሁፍ፣ ፎቶ፣ ቪዲዮና ድምፅ የመሳሰሉት ነገሮች ሁሉ የሌሎችን/የ3ኛ ወገኖችን/ ወይም የወኪሎችን የቅጂ መብት፣የንግድ ምልክት፣ የንግድ ሚስጥር፣ ወይም ማናቸውም አይነት የግልና የንብረት መብትን ያልጣሰ መሆን ይኖርበታል። ይህ ሆኖ ባይገኝ ግን አመልካቾች ሃላፊነቱን የሚወስዱ ይሆናል።

    አመልካች ግለ-ሰቦች ወይም ቡድኖች ወይም ድርጅቶች በማመልከቻቸው የሚያካትቱአቸው ማናቸውም መረጃዎችና ቁሳቁሶች ወይም ሃሳቦች ሁሉ የአመልካቾቹ የራሳቸው ብቻ/ወይም በውክልና የተሰጣቸው  ሆኖ የተሟላና ትክክለኛ መሆን ይኖርበታል።

    በዚህም መሰረት ለውድድር የሚቀርቡ ሃሳቦች ሁሉ ማናቸውምንም አይነት የ3ኛ ወገን (የግልም ይሁን የቡድን) መብት ጋር በተያያዘ ለምሳሌ ከፈጠራ ባለቤትነት መብት፣ የግል መብት፣ የንድግ ምልክት፣ የንግድ ሚስጥር፣ ወይም የመረጃ ሚስጥሮችን መብት የማይጥሱ መሆን አለባቸው። ከዚህ ጋር በተያያዘ ለሚነሱ ማናቸውም ችግሮች ድርጅቱ ማለትም ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያ ሃላፊነቱን አይወስድም።

    አመልካቾች ካስገቡት ማመልከቻ/ የውድድር ሃሳብ/ተሳትፎ/ ጋር በተያያዘ ድርጅታችን ወይም አጋር ድርጅቶች እና ማናቸውም ሰራተኞቻችው (የተለያዩ መኮንኖች፣ ዳይሬክተሮች፣ ተወካዮች) ሁሉ ከማናቸውም አይነት ወቀሳና ተጠያቂነት ነꬋ ለመሆናቸው እያንዳንዱ አመልካች ወይም የአመላካቾች ቡድን አባል መስማማት ይኖርበታል።

    ለማናቸውም ለተዘበራረቁ፣ ለጠፋ፣ ለዘገዩ፣ ለተደመሰሱ፣ እና አድራሻ ለሳቱ የኢሜይል፣ ወይም የድምፅ መልእክቶች፣ ወይም የኮምፕዩተር ስተቶች ድርጅታችን ተጠያቂ አይሆንም።

    ትክክለኛ ወይም ያልተዛቡ ላልሆኑ የማመልከቻ መረጃዎች፣ ስተቶች፣ ቴክኒካዊ/ስልታዊ/ብልሽቶች፣ የሰው ወይም የቴክኒክ ስተቶች፣ የስርጭት ወይም የህትመት ጉድለቶች፣ ለጠፉ፣ ለዘገዩና ግልፅ ላልሆኑ ወይም ለተዘለሉ፣ ለተቆራረጡ፣ ለተደለቱ፣ ለተሳሳቱ ወዘተ መረጃዎች፣ ወይም ስርጭቶች፣ የስልክ ወይም የኢንተርኔት መስመር ወይም ሌሎች ማናቸውም ተያይዥ ችግሮች ድርጅታችን ተጠያቂ አይደለም።  አመልካቾች ከማመልከታቸው በፊት ከላይ በተዘረዘሩት ሃሳቦች መስማማታቸውን በፊርማቸው መግለፅ ይኖርባቸዋል። የስምምነት መግልጫ ቅፁን ደግሞ ከድህረ-ገፁ ላይ ማግኘት ይችላሉ።

    ከላይ የተጠቀሱ ሁታዎች ሁሉ አሟልቶ የተረከበ ማመልከቻ/ በፅሁፍ የቀረበ ሃሳብ ‘Entry’ ሲባል አመልካቹ ደግሞ Entrant ይባላል።


    የማመልከቻ ቀኑ መቼ ያበቃል?

    የማመልከቻ ቀኑ ጥር 13 ቀን 2012 የሚጀመር ሲሆን ማብቂያው ደግሞ ሚያዝያ 28 ቀን 2012 ይሆናል።  የማመልከቻ ጊዜው ካለቀ ቦሗላም ለፍꬋሜ ያለፉ 5 (አምስት) ተወዳዳሪዎች በዳኞች የሚመረጡ ይሆናል።


    ሒደትና ሽልማቱ ምንድን ነው?

    የማመልከቻ ጊዜው ካለፈ ቦኃላ የወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያ እና የሌሎች ድርጅቶች ባለሙያዎች/ዳኞች/ ከአመልካቾች ውስጥ 5 የፍፃሜ ተወዳዳሪዎችን የሚመርጡ ይሆናል። ዳኞቹም ልምድ ያላቸው፣ የስራ ፈጠራን  የሚያውቁ፣ ወይም ኢንቨስተሮች የሆኑ ሲሆን ዳኞቹን የሚያዘጋጀውም ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያ ይሆናል።


    ለመረጣ ትኩረት የሚደረግባቸው ሃሳቦች/ነጥቦች

    • ፈጠራ ያለበት መሆኑ
    • በቀላሉ ሊተገበር የሚችልና ውድ ያልሆነ
    • አዋጭነት ያለው/ አዋጭ የሆነ
    • ተጨባጭ/ነባራዊ ሁኔታዎችን ያገናዘበ እና
    • ፈጠራው በተደጋጋሚ ስራ ላይ መዋል የሚችል

    ተወዳዳሪዎ ውሳኔ ለመስጠት በሚወጡት የመመዘኛ መስፈርቶች መሰረት በውድድሩ ዳኞች የሚመረጡ ይሆናል። ዳኞች ከጠቅላላ አመልካቾች ውስጥ የመጨረሻ 5 ምርጥ/ የፍꬋሜ ተወዳዳርሪዎችን/ ለመምረጥ የጋራ ስብሰባ የሚያደርጉ ሲሆን፣ የማመልከቻ ጊዜው ካለቀ ቦሃላም በ3 ሳንምት ጊዜ ውስጥ ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያ ለተመረጡ አመልካቾችን በስልክ ወይም በኢሜል አማካኝነት ጥሪ የሚያደርግላቸው ይሆናል።

    በ3 ሳንምት ጊዜ ውስጥ ጥሪ ሊደርሳቸው ያልቻሉ/ሊገኙ ያልቻሉ/ስልካቸው/ኢሜይል አድራሻቸው ያልሰራ አመልካቾች ማመልከቻቸው ውድቅ የሚደረግ ሲሆን፣ በምትካቸው ደግሞ ሌሎች አመልካቾች ሊገቡ ይችላሉ።


    ሽልማቱ ምንድን ነው?

    የመጨረሻ ምርጥ 5/አምስት/ አመልካቾች የፈጠራ ሃሳባቸውን በንግግር መልክ ከማቅረባቸው/ Pitch/ ከማድረጋቸው በፊት፣ ሓሳባቸውን አንዲያጠርሩና እንዲያደራጁ  ያግዛቸዋል ተብሎ በሚዘጋጀው የ3 ቀናት ወርክሾፕ ላይ የመሳተፍ ግዴታ ይኖርባቸዋል። የ3 ቀናት ወርክሾፑ ላይ ለመሳተፍ ወደ ሙከራ ቦታዎች/ prototype site /ለመሄድ የሚያስፈልገውን ውጪ የሚሸፍኑት ደግሞ ተወዳዳሪዎች ይሆናሉ።

    አመልካቾች የፈጠራ ሃሳባቸውን በንግግር መልክ ካቀረቡ/ Pitch ካደረጉ ቦኃላ ከ5ቱ ተወዳዳሪዎች ውስጥ 2 የተሻሉ አመልካቾች በዳኞች ተመርጠው በጋራ 12,000 የአሜሪካን ዶላር ማለትም የመጀመሪያው አሸናፊ 7,000 ዶላር እና 2ኛው አሸናፊ ደግሞ 5000 ዶላር የሚሸለሙ ይሆናል። ሆኖም ግን ለ1ኛውና ለ2ኛው ለአሸናፊ የሚሰጠው የዶላር መጠን (ክፍፍል) በወጡት መስፈርቶችና በዶሴው/ Brief/ ላይ ትኩረት እንዲስጣቸው ተብለው በተጠቀሱት ነጥቦች መሰረት በዳኞች ሊቀየር ይችላል። ማለትም መመዘኛዎቹን በይበልጥ ያካተተ ሃሳብ ያቀረበ ሰው/ ቡድን/ ድርጅት/ የተሻለ መጠን ሊያገኝ የሚችል ሲሆን ሌላኛው ቡድን ደግሞ እላይ ከተጠቀሰው መጠነ ያነሰ ሽልማት ሊያገኝ ይችላል።


    የመጨረሻው ዙር ውድድር ምንድን ነው?

    የመጨረሻው ዙር ውድድር/ Pitch/ 5ቱ አመልካቾች ከተመረጡ ቦሃላ ተወዳዳሪዎቹ የሚወዳዳሩበት የውድድር አይነት ነው። ውድድሩ 5ቱየመጨረሻ ዙር ተወዳዳሪዎች የሃሳባቸውን ተግባራዊነት/ የአተገባበር/የአፈፃፀም ሁኔታና እቅድ እንዲሁም አሰራሩን በተመለከተ ማብራሪያ የሚሰጡበት መድረክ ሆኖም ያገለግላል።

    በዚህም ጊዜ ተወዳዳሪዎች ስራቸውን/ሃሳባቸውን ለማስረዳት 10 ደቂቃ የሚሰጣቸው ሲሆን ለጥያቄና መልስ ደግሞ 5 ደቂቃ ይመደብላቸዋል። ተወዳዳሪዎች ሃሳባቸውን በእንግሊዝኛ ካልቻሉ ደግሞ በአማርኛ ማቅረብ የሚችሉ ሲሆን ሁሉም አባላት ግን የመናገር ግዴታ አይኖርባቸውም። ዳኞቹ በመመዘኛ ነጥቦች መሰረት ምዘናና ውሳኔ የሚሰጡ ሲሆን ወ/ቪ/ኢ አመልካቾች ያቀረቡትን ሃሳብ ወደ ፕሮጀክት ለውጦ የመተግበር ግዴታ ግን አይኖርበትም።


    ዳኞቹ የሚሰጡት ውሳኔ የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ ነውን?

    የውድድሩ ዳኞች የሚሰጡት ውሳኔ የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ ነው። አጠቃላይ/የመጨረሻ/ አሸናፊዎች ማሸነፋቸው በይፋ ከመገለፁ በፊት፣ ለመጨረሻ ዙር ያለፉ ተወዳዳሪዎች/እጩዎች/ የወድድሩን ህጎች ሁሉ አንብበው መረዳታቸውና በህጎቹም ሁሉ መስማማታቸውን ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያ ባዘጋጀው ቅፅ በመፈረም ማረጋገጥ ይኖርባቸዋል።

    በዚህም መሰረት እጩዎቹ በህጎቹ ሁሉ መስማማትቸውን እና በህጎቹ መሰረት ለመወዳደር መፍቀዳቸውን፣ ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትዮጵያም ተወዳዳሪዎች ያቀረቡትን/ያሸነፉበትን ሃሳብ እንዲሁም ከወድድሩ ጋር በተያያዘ የተወዳዳሪዎችን ስም፣ አድራሻ፣ ምስል፣ ድምፅ፣ ቪዲዮ እና የሽልማታቸውን መጠን፣ በማናቸውም መልክ ለማስተላለፍ፣ ለማተምና ለማሰራጨት መፍቀዳቸውን፣ እንዲሁም በውድድሩ ላይ በመሳተፋቸው   ወይም ጉዞ በማድረጋቸው ለሚነሱ/ለሚፈጠሩ ማናቸውም ችግሮች ድርጅታችንም ሆነ ሌሎች አጋሮቻችን ተጠያቂነት ላለመሆናቸው የተስማሙ/የሚስማሙ ይሆናል።

    ወርልድ ቪዥንም ሆነ ዳኞች ትክክለኛ አይደሉም ወይም የተጭበረበሩ፣ ብቁ ያልሆኑ፣ ወይም ህጉን የጣሱ ናቸው ብለው ያመኑባቸውን ተውዳዳሪዎች እና የመወዳደሪያ ሰነዶችን ሁሉ ውድቅ የማድረግ መብት ያላቸው ሲሆነ ተወዳዳሪዎች የመታዊቂያ ካርድ የማቅረብም ግዴታ ይሆርባቸዋል።

    ድርጅታችን ውድድሩ በማናቸውም ምክንያቶች ከታሰበለት እቅድ ውጭ ሆነ ብሎ ካመነ ወይም አካሄዱ ተበላሽ፣ ፍትሃዊ አልሆነም፣ ታማኝነት ጎድሎታል፣ ሙስና ተሰርቶበታል፣ ወይም ከኮምፒዩተር ሆነ ከሌሎች ማናቸውም ነገሮች ጋር በተያያዘ ችግሮች ገጥመውታል ብሎ ካመነ ወይም ሌሎች ማናቸውም ከድርጅቱ አቅም በላይ የሆኑ ችግሮ ከገጠሙት ውድድሩን/የወድድሩን ሁኔታ የማሻሻል፣ የመከለስ፣የማስቆም፣ የማቋረጥ ወይም ሙሉ በሙሉ የመሰረዝ፣ መብት ይኖረዋል/አለው፣ አመልካቾችም ተሰማምተዋል።

    አስፈላጊ ሆኖ ሲገኝም፣ መሰረታዊ ሁኔታዎችን በማያናጋ መልኩ  ወርልድ ቪዥን ኢትይዮጵያ የውድድሩን ህጎችን የመቀየር እና በውድድሩ ላይ ማናቸውንም አይነት ችግር የፈጠሩ ተወዳዳሪዎችን ከወድድሩ የማሰናበት መብት ይኖረዋል።

    የውድድሩን ዌብ-ሳይት ለማበላሸት/ለመጉዳት/ ወይም የውድድሩን ህጋዊ አስራር ለማደናቀፍ/ለማዳከም የሚካሄድ ማንኛውም አይነት ሙከራ ሁሉ የወንጅልና የፍትሃብሄር  ህጎችን መጣስ ሲሆን ድርጅታችን በሀጉ መሰረት የጥገናና የካሳ ክፍያ የሚጠየቅ መብት ይኖረዋል። ይህ ውድድር በሀገር፣ በክልል፣ በወረዳ እና በአካባቢ ደረጃ ባሉ ህጎች መሰረት የሚፈፀም  ይሆናል። ምንም አይነት ግልፅ ያልሆኑ ነገሮች ቢኖሩ ደግሞ ለአጠቃላይ የውድድሩ ሃሳቦ ተግዢ ናቸው።

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